Posted on / Updated on / in Blog & Compensation Planning /

Direct deposit: it seems simple enough. Employers pay employees by transferring money directly to the employees’ bank accounts. It’s convenient for small business owners, who save check printing costs and bank check processing fees, and employees have access to the funds on payday instead of waiting until their paychecks clear.

So what’s the big deal?

Well, there are not only federal laws businesses need to follow; there are also state laws and the potential for unintentional discrimination (more on that later). And that’s where it gets tricky.

Some states allow employers to require employees to accept direct deposit of wages and bonuses. Others allow employees to choose between direct deposit and traditional paychecks. In addition, federal regulations govern direct deposit of salaries and other employee payments.

So let’s break it down.

Federal Payroll Direct Deposit Laws

Some small businesses may want to try to save money on direct deposit fees by having employees open direct deposit account at the bank where the business holds its own accounts. But this is illegal, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Employers cannot require their employees to use any particular financial institution for receiving direct deposit of wages or bonuses.

However, the FDIC does not prevent an employer from requiring direct deposit as long as the employee chooses the receiving bank. Also, an employer may give employees the choice of having their salary deposited at a particular institution (designated by the employer) or receiving their salary by another means, such as by check or cash.

Now that we have the federal law down, let’s look at the direct deposit laws by state.

States with No Laws Regarding Direct Deposit

  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Louisiana
  • Massachusetts
  • Mississippi
  • Nebraska
  • Ohio

All of these states have no clear laws restricting direct deposit in any way.

States Allowing Required Direct Deposit

  • Indiana
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • South Carolina
  • Texas
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia

These states allow employers to require all employees to accept direct deposit of wages. But even these states make exceptions for employees who do not have bank accounts, who may receive wages in cash, check or payroll card form.

States Requiring Employee Agreement for Direct Deposit

  • Alaska
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Colorado
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Maryland
  • Montana
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
  • Wyoming

These states require employees to consent to receiving wages in direct deposit form. Some of these states require specific written permission, which must be retained by the employer.

States with Specific Direct Deposit Regulations

In Arizona, an employee must either specify a bank at which he or she wishes to receive direct deposit payments or agree to receive salary payments in electronic paycard form.

Arkansas requires employees to specify in writing that they wish to receive checks if their employer has instituted direct deposit. Utah allows employers to require direct deposit only if they are required to pay a minimum of $250,000 in state payroll tax or if two-thirds of the workforce of a firm agree to direct deposit.

Take This Final Tip To The Bank

Now that we’ve discussed the all the legal aspects of direct deposits, there is one more issue to consider: the potential for disparate impact or unintentional discrimination. Even if you can legally require direct deposits, you might want to think twice about that.

Because those employees without bank accounts are often part of the protected classes, employers might want to consider policies that strongly encourage direct deposits, but offer other options to avoid potential claims of discrimination.

Make sure to keep that in mind when developing your policy.

Would you like an easy way to remember the direct deposit and pay stub laws for your state? We’ve created a chart that you can use to help you keep it all straight!

Download our Direct Deposit & Pay Stub Laws By State Chart Below

 

 

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about the author: Amy Letke

Amy Newbanks Letke, SPHR, GPHR, is the Founder of Integrity HR, Inc. Amy provides workplace solutions to improve performance, reduce liability and increase profits. She is passionate about helping other entrepreneurs and business owners achieve success.

currently there's 11 comment(s) Would you like to add your thoughts?

  • Suzy

    commented on July 29, 2016 at 9:55 am

    I am an employer in California. Can I give only those that have worked with me for 6 or more months the option of having direct deposit? Or do I have to provide it for everyone?
    Thanks!

    • Integrity HR

      commented on August 1, 2016 at 3:52 pm

      Hi Suzy,

      We can only give specific advice to our clients and California has very different compliance regulations than we do in Kentucky. We recommend that you content contact the Department of Labor for your specific question.

  • Marie Wagner

    commented on February 6, 2017 at 3:30 pm

    I work for a small business in Tenn. Recently we have been offered the ” Benefit” of Direct Deposit. But.. employer charging every employee 2.00 per pay period, roughly 100.00 per year t make her job easier. Also the payroll is done by her fiancee who is a CPA!
    I don’t believe I care to pay her to pay me. Is ths a legal charge?

  • Merry Morrow

    commented on November 15, 2019 at 8:57 pm

    I have a question in the state of PA. Once enrolled in direct deposit, can your employer decide not to deposit your payroll check . Without your concent ?

  • Kendell Howard

    commented on January 4, 2020 at 10:15 am

    My employer only accepts Direct Deposit from a particular bank. Is this legal?

  • Amondou Foster

    commented on May 18, 2020 at 11:38 pm

    My Employer reversed my payroll from direct deposit back to paper checks because I called off work is this legal because to me it seems illegal… I pay all my bills threw my direct deposit online and now I have to be inconvenienced by using prepay card

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  • Barbara Caisse

    commented on May 26, 2020 at 11:10 pm

    In Indiana is my employer required to supply me a pay stup
    B if I have direct deposit?

  • Charlie

    commented on July 3, 2020 at 11:21 am

    My job does direct deposit but only allow it to deposit on a card they specifically gave me, but i wanted my money to get deposited into MY account, i had asked the district manager and she denied me my direct deposit, then insisted i use their card, yet i cant pay bills or rent using their card/account and its 3-5 buisness days in order to transfer the money wich is causing me to be late on rent in wich my landlord charges 10$ a day as a late fee, any suggestions?

  • Susan Pisani

    commented on September 13, 2020 at 6:23 pm

    What is the law requirement on receiving timely pay stubs from the Federal Government with direct deposit pay?

  • Wade

    commented on December 2, 2020 at 11:49 am

    I work for a bank. The bank is located in Wyoming and Colorado. They offer direct deposit only if I deposit into the bank. They will not allow me to deposit DDS into another financial institution. if I don’t want to DDS into the bank, they will allow me to receive a paycheck instead. can they limit me to only DDS into their choice of bank? my options are to DDS into their bank or get a paycheck? is this legal?